The most common flu complication
The most common complication of the flu. 8817.jpeg
In the middle of the winter of this year, already a third of the regions of the Russian Federation are covered by a new influenza epidemic. Meanwhile, one in ten people who have had the flu can get pneumonia. Such bleak statistics make us take this disease seriously. Chronicles, smokers, children and the elderly have an increased chance of contracting pneumonia.
Virus A and V B
Should I be afraid of pneumonia?Yes and no – it all depends on the timeliness and quality of treatment. But the fear of contracting pneumonia, characteristic of people, in most cases is not justified. The fact is that most often pneumonia is caused by microbes that already live in the human body. All that is needed is an impulse for the bacteria to activate and trigger the inflammatory process. Such an impetus can be a viral infection, weakened immunity, hypothermia.
The most likely scenario for the development of pneumonia is as follows: a person got the flu and seems to be recovering. And suddenly, fever, weakness, shortness of breath again appear. So, in the body, weakened by a viral infection, bacteria were activated, which caused the development of pneumonia.
Most often, the culprits are pneumococci or streptococci. As a rule, the inflammation that these microbes cause is not severe, and can be treated well. But pneumonia caused by viruses is more difficult. Influenza viruses A and B often cause inflammation with hemorrhages in the lung tissue.
The most noticeable manifestation is intoxication.
With any inflammation, toxins are formed, and due to the fact that the alveoli are tightly braided by vessels, toxic substances enter the bloodstream quickly and in high concentration. Therefore, the most pronounced manifestation of pneumonia is intoxication. Its symptoms are headache, aches and pains in the muscles and joints, severe weakness, loss of appetite. The skin becomes pale, with an earthy tint.
It is believed that high blood pressure is inevitable with pneumonia. Indeed, in most cases, the body reacts to pneumonia in a fever: the numbers 39, 40, and even higher can appear on the thermometer. In essence, this is a protective measure that helps destroy microbes. But if the immunity is weakened and the body does not have the resources to fight the infection, the temperature may remain normal or rise very slightly. This happens in young children, in the elderly, with chronic chronic diseases.
With pneumonia, an inflammatory fluid begins to accumulate in the alveoli. It compresses the delicate walls, interferes with the normal breathing process. As a result, oxygen starvation develops, and the carbon dioxide content in the blood, on the contrary, increases. The body responds to this by increasing respiratory activity, in other words, shortness of breath.
Another symptom of pneumonia is a cough. It can be dry or with sputum (mucous or purulent, less often with blood). Pneumonia often proceeds without pain. If the pain appeared, this may be due to the addition of intercostal neuralgia, especially with frequent and persistent coughing, or if the disease was complicated by pleurisy – inflammation of the lung membrane.
The most reliable x-ray
The doctor diagnoses pneumonia according to the patient’s appearance and complaints, fever, shortness of breath, and other symptoms. While listening to the phonendoscope, the picture becomes clear: if with inflammation of the bronchi in the lungs all kinds of wheezing are most often heard, and breathing is hard, then with pneumonia in the areas of inflammation, breathing, on the contrary, is weakened. In the blood test – typical signs of inflammation: an increased number of white blood cells, an accelerated erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR).
The most reliable examination is an x-ray – it will definitely show which part of the lungs is affected.
In 80% of cases, pneumonia can be treated at home.
But only a doctor must make a decision! And the treatment itself must be carried out under the supervision of a doctor. Even the most staunch opponents of antibiotics know that you can’t do without these drugs to treat pneumonia. A telling fact: before their introduction into practice, pneumonia very often ended fatally, especially in children and the elderly.
The choice of the drug and the method of its administration, calculation of the dose, time of use – all this, of course, is the prerogative of the doctor. After all, you need to take into account the age of the patient, the initial state of the body, concomitant diseases. Antibiotics kill the germs that cause inflammation. But in parallel, other tasks need to be solved, for example, getting rid of sputum, stagnant phenomena in the focus of inflammation. And – completely cured.
Gymnastics for the lungs
The task of respiratory gymnastics is to remove stagnation in the focus of inflammation, to help restore full breathing. You can start practicing on the third day of the disease.
First, you can perform exercises in a prone position: the patient puts his hands on his stomach, inhales deeply. Then – a slow exhale, the abdominal muscles are retracted. Repeat such breaths up to 15 times, 5 sets per day.