What can our blood tell
Each of us at least once in his life donated blood for analysis and received a piece of paper on his hands with letters, numbers and units of measure. Then the doctor, looking at the results, announced: “You are healthy” or “You are sick”. But you yourself, how many did not consider incomprehensible badges, did not understand anything. In fact, everything is not so complicated. Let’s try to learn the language of our blood.
A general blood test is taken from the finger and serves to determine whether a person actually has blood diseases and whether any inflammatory process is occurring in the body. Blood is placed in a special analyzer, which gives the results. What will the letters and numbers on the form mean?
RBC These letters denote red blood cells – red blood cells. One milliliter of blood should contain from 3.8 to 5.8 million red blood cells. If there are fewer, then this is a sign of anemia. And therefore, the doctor needs to look at the following indicator – hemoglobin – a protein contained in red blood cells. Hemoglobin is indicated by the letters HGB.
If hemoglobin is low (the norm is 110-165 g per liter of blood), then we are really talking about iron deficiency anemia. Low hemoglobin also inhibits blood coagulation, which can lead to severe bleeding. If it is elevated, then this can speak of chronic leukemia – a benign blood disease. In addition, hemoglobin is able to tell a lot more about the doctor, but for us it is best if it remains within the normal range.
HCT. These are just platelets that are involved in blood coagulation. Normally, they should be from 350 to 500 thousand in one milliliter of blood. A low platelet count indicates increased bleeding, a tendency to bruise and warns of other blood diseases.
WBC This is how white blood cells are designated – white blood cells. Their norm is 3.5-10 thousand in one milliliter. A decrease or increase in the number of white blood cells is a sign of inflammatory processes in the body.
P / nuclear and C / nuclear. The total number of white blood cells includes young stab cells, which then mature and become segmented. P / nuclear should be up to 5% of the total number of mature white blood cells. If more – look for inflammation.
LIM. We are talking about lymphocytes, which should be up to 30% of the total number of leukocytes. Exceeding the norm may indicate tuberculosis. A large increase in the number of lymphocytes is observed with lymphocytic leukemia, but the final conclusions should be made by the doctor, based on additional studies.
EOZ. If eosonophils, which are so designated more than 5%, it means that a person may have an allergy.
ESR Sedimentation rate of erythrocytes. The norm should not exceed 17-18 mm per hour. If red blood cells settle at a rate above 20 mm per hour, then this is a sign of inflammation.
If the general blood test showed any deviations from the norm, a biochemical blood test is prescribed, for which blood is taken from a vein and preferably on an empty stomach. Biochemistry shows how the liver and kidneys work, whether water-salt metabolism and the balance of trace elements (calcium, potassium, etc.) are disturbed.
Glucose. Its norm is 3.50-5.80 mm per liter of blood. Elevated glucose levels indicate a threat of diabetes mellitus or impaired glucose tolerance, which requires consultation with an endocrinologist.
Urea or residual nitrogen. These are substances that remain in the blood after filtering fluid through the kidneys. The urea rate is 2.5-8.3 millimoles per liter. Exceeding the norm indicates poor excretory function of the kidneys and impaired filtration. Urea is delayed and there is a poisoning of the body, which contributes to the occurrence of, for example, a disease such as gouty arthritis.
Creatinine. This indicator (norm 44-106 micromilliliters per liter) also indicates the functioning of the kidneys. With a low level of creatinine, we can talk about the development of renal failure.
Cholesterol. Talks about metabolic rate. Its norm is 2.6-6.7 millimoles per liter. High cholesterol is a threat to the development of atherosclerosis.
Transaminases ALT and AST are responsible for liver function. Norm ALT – 5.37 IU (international units), AST – 5-40 IU. High transaminase levels indicate hepatitis.
Total bilirubin. Normally, it should not exceed 22.2 micromilliliters per liter. This indicator increases with viral hepatitis A, B, C, D or with obstructive jaundice.
Total protein. Determines the level of protein in the blood serum. Its norm is from 62 to 83 grams per liter. If a person is poorly fed, depleted, the protein level drops sharply. The same thing happens in violation of the absorption of protein by the body.
Of course, these are just the most general data about what our blood can tell us. Nevertheless, the doctor should first of all understand the analyzes. He also prescribes additional studies if any blood counts are violated.