Everyone can get tuberculosis
There is one simple diagnostic procedure that doctors recommend doing once every two years, but we always put it off for later and forget it. This is fluorography. Imagine a girl: smart, educated. Great job and family. And then … pulmonary tuberculosis. He is not a thing of the past; anyone, even the most prosperous, can get sick with them.
On the first working day after the New Year holidays in 2015, I woke up with a slightly cold: my throat ached, the temperature was 37.5 °. I went to work, because there was no fatigue or weakness, and the season was such that the entire department also sneezed and coughed. A few days later I felt great. Everything was so insignificant that I would have forgotten about this episode, but a slight coughing remained for the third week. Many do not pay attention to this, but I am a perfectionist and decided to get rid of the “residual” bronchitis. I made a fluorogram in advance for a fee. When she took the picture, the radiologist said that it looked like pneumonia, since there is a blackout in the upper lobe of the right lung.
The therapist prescribed antibiotics for 10 days, I was treated as expected and after that I calmly passed the control x-ray, confident that there was no pneumonia. There are a lot of things in my head, and then I hear: “There are no changes, I am sending it to the TB specialist” …
Head physician of the State Health Institution “Royal TB Dispensary” Alexandra Erofeeva
– Tuberculosis is an infectious disease. A person becomes infected by airborne droplets in transport, in a movie, in a store, especially since more than 10 cubic meters of air passes through the lungs per day. This disease is not at all a complication of pneumonia or cannot develop from an untreated ARI, as some mistakenly think. This infection is caused by specific bacteria – Mycobacterium tuberculosis-M. tuberculosis, otherwise they are called Koch bacilli. After you inhale them, they spread throughout the body with a flow of lymph and blood, so they can affect any organ that is well supplied with blood. Pulmonary tuberculosis is the most common option.
A person from whom you can catch an infection does not necessarily look weak, suffocates from a cough and this is not necessarily an antisocial personality. It can be a colleague, neighbor, family member. Patients themselves usually do not know about their danger to others, and cough is attributed, for example, to asthma, allergies or residual bronchitis, smoking.
– Having caught mycobacteria for the first time, you are considered infected. Just do not confuse this with the concept of “disease.” Infection is a condition in which mycobacteria are quietly in the body, but do not cause illness. And already a disease (tuberculosis), this is when mycobacteria began to multiply uncontrollably, because the immune system can not cope with them. At the same time, in the early stages of the disease, a person does not secrete mycobacteria into the external environment.
In our country, the situation with tuberculosis is as follows: by the age of 18, 8 out of 10 people are infected, and in 5-10% of them, the carrier of Koch’s coli passes into active tuberculosis. It turns out that by adulthood, most people are already infected, there’s nothing to be done. It remains in time to intercept the onset of the disease, to catch the first changes in the lungs, if they begin. This can only be done using fluorography, repeating it once a year.
This is the first study that you need if you have suspicious symptoms: cough, shortness of breath of any intensity or low-grade fever (about 37.5 °) that has been bothering you for more than three weeks.
Especially if it is accompanied by fatigue, increased fatigue, sweating in the morning. Unfortunately, tuberculosis of other organs, for example, genital or kidney tuberculosis, cannot be detected using such a screening study. It can be suspected only when obvious symptoms appear.
If the result of the fluorogram is not pleasant to the phthisiatrician, he appoints additionally an X-ray of the lungs and tomographic examinations, less often three times sputum analysis. The Mantoux test is also prescribed, but for adults it is used only as an additional method of examination and is interpreted quite differently than in children.
You can do additional Diaskin test – an alternative to the Mantoux test. This is the latest allergy test for tuberculosis, similar in technique to the Mantoux test, but more sensitive.
– Treatment always consists of two stages – the intensive care phase (minimum 90 days) and the continuation phase (minimum 120 days). The earlier the tuberculosis process is detected, the less likely it is that there is bacterial excretion, and the shorter the treatment time, and perhaps even hospitalization will not be necessary. Although it is advisable to begin treatment in a hospital, the medications are serious.
There are dubious situations when it is difficult to understand whether you have tuberculosis or another disease, such as oncology. Know that your fate is not in the hands of one doctor, even in the hands of one dispensary. The opinion is issued by a commission of at least three experts. In the same way, a decision is made to transfer to an inpatient or home treatment.