What will tell the most popular analysis.
Urinalysis is one of the most common research methods. From time to time, we all have to take it. And get scared when the doctor suddenly demands to “retake” him. During the study, doctors pay attention to physical characteristics, chemical composition and study the sediment under a microscope. What will the urinalysis tell about?
Of the parameters of the chemical composition, the most important in the general analysis of urine are the content of protein, glucose, nitrites, bilirubin, urobilinogen, ketone bodies, hemoglobin, as well as the determination of pH.
What will tell the most popular analysis. Video. Analysis of urine
Urine Reaction (pH)
For urine, a mild acid reaction is normal, but this figure can range from 4.5-8. A slightly alkaline reaction is normal for people whose diet contains a large amount of greenery, fresh fruit. But more often this picture is observed in patients after profuse vomiting, increased levels of potassium in the blood, hyperparathyroidism, prolonged use of diuretics. A decrease in pH may result from dehydration, diabetes mellitus, chronic renal failure, urolithiasis, or fever.
Normally, the concentration of protein in the urine is less than 0.002 g / l. The appearance of protein in the urine is called proteinuria. Sometimes proteinuria is not a consequence of the disease, for example, this happens after intense physical work, stress, eating large amounts of protein, poor-quality toilet of the genitals before sampling.
But, unfortunately, the appearance of protein in the urine most often indicates the presence of certain pathologies. Normally, proteins do not pass from blood to urine, but with kidney disease (glomerulonephritis, pyelonephritis, pregnant nephropathy), as well as fever, hypertension, the filter barrier is broken. With inflammation of the organs of the excretory and reproductive systems (cystitis, urethritis, prostatitis, vaginitis), the protein will also appear in the urine.
Normally, almost all glucose entering the urine is absorbed back into the blood when it passes through the renal tubules. Therefore, in healthy people, blood sugar is not detected. A significant increase in blood glucose (with diabetes mellitus) or a violation of its reverse absorption in renal diabetes leads to glucosuria – the appearance of blood sugar.
In healthy people, nitrites are absent in the urine. They are formed as a result of the vital activity of some bacteria that turn nitrates into nitrites. Therefore, their presence indicates a bacterial lesion of the urinary tract.
Bilirubin is not a normal component of urine. Bilirubin is continuously formed in our body during the destruction of red blood cells. Such bilirubin is very toxic and is called direct. In the blood, it binds to the protein albumin synthesized in the liver, is transported into it and, under the influence of chemicals, turns into a non-toxic indirect bilirubin. Then, together with bile, it enters the intestinal lumen and is converted by intestinal bacteria into urobilinogen. It is clear that with liver damage or difficulty in the outflow of bile, this entire cycle is disrupted, and the content of indirect bilirubin in the blood rises, which leads to its appearance in the urine. But direct bilirubin does not pass through the renal filter, therefore, with increased destruction of red blood cells, bilirubin rarely appears in the urine.
A normal level of urobilinogen is considered to be a concentration of up to 10 mg / l. We already mentioned that this pigment appears due to the processing of bilirubin by the intestinal bacteria. The resulting urobilinogen is absorbed into the bloodstream and excreted in the urine. Increased breakdown of red blood cells (hemolytic anemia, poisoning with some poisons), inflammation of the intestines of bacterial origin causes increased production of urobilinogen, and hence the appearance of a significant amount of it in the urine. In addition to these reasons, a high concentration of urobilinogen is observed in patients with liver diseases.
Ketone bodies (KET)
Ketone bodies are formed in the body during the breakdown of fats, and their content in the blood, and therefore in the urine, is so insignificant that it is not determined by the equipment. Therefore, it is believed that in healthy people, ketone bodies in the urine are absent. The main source of energy for the body is glucose, if it is insufficient (starvation), the body requires a significant expenditure of energy (fever) or glucose cannot be absorbed by the cells (diabetes), then fats are used heavily for energy. As a result, the production of ketone bodies and their appearance in the urine (ketonuria) increase. In children, the content of “glucose reserve” of glycogen is very small. Therefore, even a slight underfeeding can lead them to ketonuria.
To a certain concentration in the blood, hemoglobin does not penetrate into the urine, therefore, normally it is not there. In healthy people, the content of this protein in the blood is low, because the hemoglobin formed during the destruction of red blood cells manages to be processed by the body into simpler components.